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Hinduism is a very old religion.Throughout the centuries the religion has fostered beliefs of the supernatural and evil spirits that are peculiar to India. Many of these beliefs can be traced to a common root with other religions. Thus similar concepts abound in Christianity as well. It is worth examining some beliefs from Himachal Pradesh a state in north India
Speak about beauty and the world will willingly join you share about beautiful people and their definition and standard of beauty. Talk about love and many will tell their respective stories about love. Mention about sex and it will surely arouse the interest of any individual. In mythology, gods and goddesses of beauty, love and sex are among the most popular and most celebrated.
The corner stone of Hindu thought is the theory of reincarnation and rebirth. Hindu predictive astrology also has a close link with the theory of rebirth and the great Astrologer Bhrigu epitomized it in his Bhrigu Samhita a treatise on astrology, that reportedly claims to have cast all known horoscopes that are valid even today. Both astrology and Hindu theory of rebirth are intrinsically connected .
In general, the foundation of the two of cups card in reverse suggests that things are going pretty well. Though the card also signifies that even though things may be going particularly well, the querrent it may not necessarily see things from that perspective. As their tarot reader, it would be effective for you to suggest that they take some time to work on their personal development, so that they made take advantage of the energy available to them from the upright two of cups, instead of o...
Lenten Season in the Philippines is celebrated widely because the country is dominated by Roman Catholics. The Holy Week is a time for people to practice fasting and abstinence as well as do good deeds and atone for their sins. Holy Week is a high profile celebration in the Philippines featuring the men who allow themselves to be crucified on the cross.
Mt. Banahaw is a famous traditional pilgrimage site for the locals and native tourists especially during the Holy Week, when psychic energy is said to be dominating the area. It is also the said place where faith and spiritual healers get their mystic powers during the divine intervention on Holy Week.
Believed to be one of the most feared gods, Hades is actually one of the most respected gods according to ancient Greek mythology. Also considered one of the richest and loyal it is at the cult of Hades that commoners, heroÂ’s, and even philosophers such as Plato and Socrates would come to seek further understanding about life after death.
The small Central American country of Belize has a population of around 250,000 people from a variety of ethnic backgrounds; of this population around 10,000 of its permanent residents are Mennonites whose ancestors originated from Europe. The Mennonites mostly live in small often isolated communities most of which shun modern lifestyles preferring not to use electricity or machinery in their self supporting farming methods.
Dublin is a fascinating city, including its many ghost stories. There are ghostly maids, dissipated nobles, phantom dogs and cats, and a haunted castle, not to mention tales of a very mischievious cellar-haunting specter. Don't go to the ruined hunting lodge just outside the city--you're sure to see some very scary floating black shapes!
The Mahabharata is an Indian epic and an extremely well-known story in India and other areas of the world where Hinduism is practiced. The most sacred text in Hinduism in the Veda, which is the direct word from the Gods, and although it is not as sacred as the Veda, The Mahabharata is significant in Hinduism. An important aspect of Hinduism is dharma, which includes moral behavior and the performance of duty. The Mahabharata is said to contain everything in the universe, and it is largely used ...
The literal meaning for Cairo in Arabic is Â“the conquerorÂ”. Cairo, the city of a Thousand Minarets is the capital of Egypt. Being the largest city in Africa and the Arab world, Cairo is popular for its culture and ancient world wonders. Here are the most important historical facts about Cairo, Egypt.
Very simple question but it seems so hard to answer. The heroes we knew are dead people. People who died fighting for freedom such as Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Diego Silang, Gregorio del Pilar and many others are our heroes. For non-Filipinos, these heroes are unfamiliar to you. In India, Mahatma Gandhi is highly regarded as their national hero. In the United States, George Washington is a popular hero while in many Latin American countries, Simon Bolivar is famous. William Wallace is we...
Superstitious beliefs are always a part of the culture of every society. While some superstitious beliefs might be erroneously held, it nevertheless makes the survival of the culture of the said society to thrive from one generation to the other. This article highlights some of the superstitious beliefs held by the traditionalists in the Nigerian society.
She had many other children of unknown fathers, both mortal and immortals. Here are some of the most interesting things about Mother Earth or Gaia.
Nativity period of Christianity has come to an end with Epiphany, commemorating the visit of the Magi from the east. Baby Jesus in the crib has been removed from the crib and kept along with other decoration things. So too are our hearts free from the thoughts of Christmas.
A Shrine to the Virgin Mary is a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary. It could also be a site on which is centered a historically strong Marian devotion. Shrine to the Virgin Mary is also called Marian Shrine.
For many of us, New YearÂ’s Day is a day of basking in the afterglow of the previous nightÂ’s revelry (or simply recovering), looking hopefully ahead to the days and months to come, and reflecting on another year past. ItÂ’s sometimes easy to forget that many significant events have taken on the first day of the year that bear reminding.
Although New Year's Eve and New Year's Day are celebrated by most cultures around the world, customs can vary greatly, as this article will demonstrate.
While many view January 1st as an opportunity to wipe the proverbial Â“slateÂ” clean and start anew, various cultures around the world have long practiced a method of influencing fate by partaking of various Â“luckyÂ” foods believed to improve the odds that next year will be a better one.
A list of some of the most peculiar and unusual tribes in the world.
God has many ways to speak to many men -- even today. Learn how to know God's voice as you search for direction and guidance in today's unpredictable and violent world.
Franz Boas's conducted fieldwork among the Kwakiutl during the 19th century, observing the Winter Ceremonial in 1895 and subsequently publishing on it and other topics in 1897. Boas' work gives us a glimpse into Kwakiutl culture in the last decades of the nineteenth century.
Talking of strange cultural practices, Nigeria does have its fair share. Ranging from the African love charm, magun to witching and inheritance issues are just some of those weird cultural practices.
Cultures have different components namely; the communication component, cognitive component, behavioral component and material component. Every component has its own part in the existence of a particular culture.
Zamzam water is special. To Muslims this blessed water is special in significance and history. This article helps you learn some facts, history and significance of zamzam water which is also called 'Aab-e-zamzam'
It is a miraculously-generated source of water from Allah (God), which began thousands of years ago when Ibrahim (as) infant son Ismael (as) was thirsty and kept crying for water and was kicking at the ground when water gushed out. Millions of pilgrims visit the Well each year while ...
Snake handling (or serpent handling), is a religious ritual practiced today in a small number of Pentecostal churches of the US (predominantly but not limited to Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, and Ohio) and a few areas of Canada, that first became popularized in the early 20th century in remote areas of the Appalachian Mountain region, which then spread to coal mining towns.
As most likely in purpose as the Binondo church located at the west end of Ongpin Street, going to the far front at Sta, Cruz area where Sta. Cruz Parish Church is located are for the increasing numbers of immigrant Chinese converts to Catholic faith. The Dominican Order took over when the Jesuits were ousted in the Philippines.
Children who misbehaved were told to mend their ways or they would be doing laundry with the sisters. Known as maggies there was a saying that Â‘bad girls do the best sheetsÂ’.
During the 10th century, when Sint-Salvator was founded only just as a common parish church and the Bruges cathedral or the Holy Savior Cathedral was not originally built to be a cathedral until only in the 19th century that it obtained its status.
There are advantages of aging because as people grow older there are many positive changes that take place.
Trier Cathedral is the oldest Episcopal Church in Germany and a significant example of western religious architecture representing 1700 years of Christianity in Trier. Sometimes mistaken for a fortress, the cathedral contains impressive collection of artworks, architecture and holy relics.
The Gurk cathedral is amongst the most popular cathedrals in Austria, also known as the Austrian Basilica in Carinthia. It was built in the town of Gurk city of Carinthia, in the green valleys of southern Austria during 1140 to 1200 where it still stands today. The architecture of the structure clearly reflects the high Romanesque style present during those times and is considered to be among the most important Romanesque churches in Europe. This beautiful 12th century cathedral is full with the...
The Cathedral of Tours (CathÃ©drale Saint-Gatien de Tours), dedicated to Saint Gatien, its first bishop, was begun about 1170 to replace the newly constructed cathedral that burned down in 1166 during the war between Louis VII of France and Henry II of England.
The beginnings of Worms Cathedral go back to early Christian times in around 614 AD and the first Bishop of Worms was Berthulf; his cathedral was much smaller than the present one. In around 1000-1025, under Burchard, the most notable Bishop of Worms, a new Romanesque cathedral was built on the site.
Mainz Cathedral was formally known in English as St. Martin Cathedral (German: Mainzer Dom). Mainz Cathedral is located near the historical center and market square of the city of Mainz, Germany.
A detailed description of eating etiquette and faux pas in Singapore.
The Florence Cathedral Â– Duomo di Firenze, built between 1294 and 1436, is one of the largest cathedrals in the world. The distinctive Renaissance dome, attributed to the Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi, still dominates the historic center of the city. The impressive Gothic cathedral complex includes the Duomo, the famous baptistery and the campanile.
Known in Spanish, Catedral Nueva means the Â“New CathedralÂ”, is popularly known as the Cathedral of Cadiz. It was built in the 18th century in the High Baroque style. Cadiz is located in the region of Andalusia in southern Spain.
Gender equality is one of the issues that society has been debating for many years. Many people consider women as the weaker sex but not today when several women have proven themselves in all aspects of life to be as strong as men.
Almudena Cathedral is the cathedral of Madrid, Spain. Dating from the late 19th and 20th centuries, Almudena Cathedral is very new by European standards, and its traditional-meets-modern design reflects its sophisticated youth and aristocratic beauty.
Burgos Cathedral (Catedral de Santa MarÃa; Catedral de Burgos) is a spectacular example of integral Gothic cathedral, with cloisters, church and annexes located in northern Spain. It is notable for its great size, magnificent Gothic architecture, and unique history. Burgos Cathedral as Frommer's Spain calls it one of Spain's best cathedrals.
The Prophet Isma'il (peace be upon him) was the eldest son of Prophet Ibrahim (peace he upon him) by his second wife Hajira. Reconstruction of Kaaba also done by Prophet Abraham and his son Prophet Ismail (pbuh). The story of Prophet Ismail is a reflection of a Child Obedience and sacrifice of a father.
Kaabah is the veritable heart of Islam towards which all the prayers of the Muslims flow to vivify their souls. It was first built by the Prophet Adam (peace be upon him), the father of the hu...
Prophet Ibrahim is recognized in Islam as a prophet and rasul of God and patriarch of many peoples. Abraham was one of the greatest Prophets, one who was called Â‘the intimate friend of GodÂ’ or Khaliullah (friend of Allah).
Prophet Abraham fulfilled all the commandments and trials which God tried him with over his lifetime. As a result of his unwavering faith in God, Abraham was promised by God to be a leader to all the nations of the world. Abraham embodies the type of the perfect Mus...
Westminster Cathedral in London is the administrative center of the Roman Catholic Church - not to be confused with the more famous Westminster Abbey nearby. Its official name is the Cathedral Church of Westminster. The foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral was laid in around 1895; the majority of the building was finished by 1903.
Ancient India has been the home of some outstanding leaders such as Siddhartha Gautama, Asoka, Chandra Gupta II, and Rajendra.
York Minster is an exquisite and recognize Gothic cathedral in York, northern England. It is the seat of an archbishop second in rank only to that of Canterbury and features a mass collection of medieval stained glass. York Minster is one of the great cathedrals in the world, renowned as an artistic and architectural masterpiece.
Wells Cathedral was the first English cathedral to be built in the Early English Gothic style, with pointed arches all around. Lincoln cathedral would follow 10 years later and Salisbury cathedral 30 years after that. At nearby Glastonbury Abbey, they were feeling less defying because reconstruction work was underway in the older Norman style.
What are the etiquette rules for dining in Sweden?
The Notre Dame cathedral is the most popular monument in Paris and in all of France, overreaching even the Eiffel Tower with 10s of million visitors each year. But the famous cathedral is also an active Catholic church, a place of pilgrimage, and the central point for Catholicism in France - religious events and festivals still take place here.
If you stray from the beaten path while traversing America, youÂ’ll undoubtedly come across one of the countryÂ’s thousands of deserted communities, what many call Â“ghost towns,Â” hidden within the forgotten fabric of the land. An especially prominent feature of the American West, deserted towns constitute abandoned ideas and ideals, misguided ventures and adventures, natural disasters, and the end result of changing times and shifting timelines. Indeed, these ghostly remains of w...
This post is about interesting facts about Kaaba, the most sacred, and may be the most visited place on earth.
Mecca is probably the most visited city in the world where the Kaaba is situated. At present only during the hajj Mecca is visited by 2 million people. Therefore, virtually all life in Mecca associated with servicing the pilgrims visiting the city. According to many researches, the Kaaba (called House of ALLAH) is the most peaceful place on earth. it holds an enormous amount of peop...
Who are the Semites? Jews, Arabs, Africans and other mid-eastern people groups have connections to Semitic origins through the line of Shem.
The Great Meteoron Monastery is the highest, largest and oldest of the six monasteries of the Meteora. Meteoron was founded in the 14th century by a monk from Mount Athos. This monastery is also known as the Monastery of the Transfiguration of Christ.
Jerash is a Greco-Roman ruined city located 80 miles north of Amman. It is dubbed as the Â“Pompeii of the East.Â” It nestled in a quiet valley among the mountains of Gilead, is the grandeur of Imperial Rome being one of the largest and most well preserved sites of Roman architecture in the World outside Italy.
The differences between Hindus and Muslims come to the fore even in the manner of slaughtering animals for meat
What is the meaning of the Pentagram? Can the Pentagram symbolise good and evil?
Linking the myth of the Grigori to Biblical theories.
Linking the myth of the Grigori to Biblical theories.
The terms Igorots and Cordilleras are used to collectively refer to a number of tribal groups including the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Apayao/Isneg, Kalinga, and Kankana-eys. The Igorots reside in the mountainous north and central Luzon areas in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR).
The senakulo is a traditional Filipino dramatization of the life and times of Jesus Christ. Done in singing (pasyon) and recitation, it is presented in the public squares in many towns, in houses and streets during the season of Lent.
kaal Bhairava is a god who is the fierce representation of Lord Shiva the Hindu God. He represents the nether world and the world of spirits and Ghosts.
Thieves are sometimes glamorous figures, defying the law and refusing to live conventional lives.
The 10 most holy cities to Islam
This is a partial SWOT analysis of the opportunities and threats for the Private School System. Parents should consider all factors of both systems before planning their child's education strategy for college.
Some analyst believe enormous pressure beneath the earth's surface cause sporadic burst of electromagnetic energy. This in turn creates conditions that better allow paranormal events to be seen by the naked eye.
Nestorianism is a doctrine advocated by Nestorius, the archbishop of Constantinople from 428 to 43.
The ancient nations where those people lived have disappeared. Of all the ancient people who lived in the Fertile Crescent, only the Hebrews have kept their identity as a people. Today they are known as Jews, after the Kingdom of Judah, where they lived long ago.
The Step Pyramid of Djoser is the oldest stone pyramid in Egypt and a significant evolution in Ancient Egyptian architecture. Located across the Great Court of the Pyramid Complex of Djoser (2667 - 2648 BC), the second king of the 3rd Dynasty, stands the Step Pyramid, located at Saqqara close to modern day Cairo. It is believed to have been created by one man, Imhotep. He has been called Doctor, Sage, Architect, Astronomer and High Priest. Imhotep was later exalted and became the patron god of a...
Cheyenne, Apache, Navajo, Comanche, Sioux and Blackfeet were some of the major Indian nations in the United States in Old West in the 19th century. All lived in the area known as the Great Plains of North America.
Learn what, where and are the characteristics of the largest statues in the world.
Lily Dale became well known for spiritualism when the childhood home of Kate and Margaret Fox was moved from Hydesville, New York to Lily Dale in 1916.
Gender is a social construction. Society presents us with acceptable models of masculinity and femininity and these teach us how to be Â‘masculineÂ’ or Â‘feminineÂ’. Gender is like a role we play and we learn how to play it by a process of social conditioning. Not everyone conforms to these stereotypical roles.
A masquerade ball is an event which the participants attend in costume wearing a mask. It is a costumed dance event or a ceremony - a rite or cultural event in many parts of world. These gatherings, parties and carnival celebrations were paralleled from the 15th century by increasingly elaborate pageants, processions celebrating weddings, allegorical Entries and dynastic events of the late medieval court life.
The fall of the Aztec Empire occurred because of the Aztec belief that Cortes was a god and because of an alliance between Cortes and other Native Americans. The Inca Empire fell to Pizarro after it had been weakened by a previous war.
How to greet everyone who comes to your church
The explanation as to what is islam, the history, the pillars and beliefs of the religion islam.
The Wodaabe, a subculture of the larger Fulbe-speaking Fulani, are a group of nomadic cattle-herders and traders who have historically been highly influential in regional politics, economics, and histories throughout western Africa. Known to have existed for over a thousand years, the Wodaabe continue to play a significant role in furthering Fulani domination in the area. Perhaps most visually striking, the Wodaabe are known for their beauty (both men and women), elaborate attire, and rich cul...
In both the Maya and Aztec civilization, a ballgame was part of the ritual of religious ceremonies. Every Maya city had a ball court, and the temple complex at Tenochtitlan had one, too.
The centerpiece of the completed city was the Great Temple, the main religious building in Tenochtitlan. It was here that the Aztecs, in an effort to please their many gods, carried out most of their human sacrifices.
Originally the Aztecs were a wandering group of hunters and farmers who called themselves the Mexica. Following the instructions of one of their gods, the Aztecs left their home in the north in search of a new land.
TeotihuacÃ¡n ruins are among the most remarkable in Mexico and some of the most important ruins in the world. TeotihuacÃ¡n ("teh-oh-tee-wa-KHAN") means "city where gods were born," reflecting the Aztec belief that the gods created the universe at this place. The holy city was constructed around 300 AD and characterized by the vast size of its monuments, carefully laid out on geometric and symbolic principles. Its most monumental structures are the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the Pyramid of the S...
Though school programs designed to cultivate skills in math and science have been proven effective in building confidence in young women, comparatively few school systems in the US actually implement them. Thus, several countries around the world including Korea, China, Japan, and India are producing nearly double the number of female scientists and technologically-savvy women as we are--a trend that could have devastating consequence in coming years.
The Fafafini (correctly, Fa\'afafine) is a third gender specific to Samoan and surrounding Polynesian island culture. Biologically, Fafafini are men who have been raised since early childhood to assume female gender roles in Samoan society.
Between 3000 and 1500 BCE, a thriving civilization dominated the Indus Valley of Southeast Asia, encompassing most of what is modern-day Pakistan, the current western states of India, southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran. From these early beginnings two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa emerged and are now believed to have been part of a cultural influence that reached farther than those of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, or China.
Konark is a small town in Puri district in the state of Odisha, India, on the Bay of Bengal, sixty-five kilometers from Bhubaneswar. The Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Hindu temple dedicated to the sun god. Shaped like a giant chariot, the temple is known for the exquisite stone carvings that cover the entire structure.
Notable gods and goddesses of the Aztecs, Incas and Mayans.
II John 7 tells us that there are many deceivers, who donÂ’t believe that Jesus came in the flesh, who are antichrists. So we know that there are many antichrists that will ultimately lead to the one final antichrist of the last days.
The art and practice of midwifery, the attending of women in childbirth, is known to have been practiced in all ancient and early cultures, and one of the oldest formal professions. Almost exclusively a female realm, midwifery is clearly noted in the earliest books of the Old Testament, and was an important role within ancient Greece and Rome society.
At the turn of the Twentieth Century, a number of societal and economic changes in America led to the rise of wide-spread gang-related crime. Notorious criminals like Â“LegsÂ” Diamond, Bonnie and Clyde, and John Dillinger rose to fame, often dominating the headlines, and often deemed modern day Robin Hoods for their willingness to fight back against what many saw as unjust laws and a government that seemed to have abandoned the American people. They live today in American pop culture.
With an estimated 1 to 1.6 billion followers world-wide today, Buddhism is the second largest religion--second only to Christianity. Though initially founded on the religious and philosophical teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, Â“the Buddha,Â” it now encompasses a wide variety of traditions, beliefs, and practices adaptive to many cultural settings around the world.
Simply Youth Ministry Promo Code / Discount Coupon Code. Simply Youth Ministry Review. Simply Youth Ministry is an outreach to workers and ministers in mission to youth founded by Doug Fields. Youth Ministry.com is the section of the site that offers books, programs, and devotional, age specific material for kids from 12 to college age. Much of their content is for the youth ministers and workers to use in programs and presentation, but a significant amount of the site...
Founded in ancient spiritual principles predating the Indo-Aryan culture, Jainism was formed between the ninth and the sixth centuries BCE as a protest against the Indian caste system which segregates the people of India by lineage or clan. With an oral tradition dating back at least 5000 years, some historians have speculated that this religion may have its roots in much earlier times, prior to the Indo-Aryan migration into India.
According to ancient Egyptian beliefs, following death, every Egyptian faced the ultimate judgment during which his or her heart was put on one side of a scale while a feather symbolizing the principle of MaÂ’at (truth, balance, and order) was placed on the other. OneÂ’s heart had to be as light as a feather in relation to sin to be allowed to pass through to the afterlife.
Christmas parol, also known and the Christmas lantern, is a traditional Filipino symbol of the star of Bethlehem. It is the most recgnized Christmas symbol of faith and hope in the Philippines.
The Five Great Mountains are arranged in the five cardinal directions (counting center as a direction) and appear roughly in a plus-sign formation on the map. According to Chinese mythology, the mountains are the limbs and the head of Pangu, creator and first being of the world. The head is Tai Shan, the eastern mountain, which is associated with the rising sun and therefore the most sacred of the five.
In a land with one of the highest incidence of HIV and AIDS in the world, a nation divided between three ethic groups and two dominant religions, Nigeria is a nation in the throes of social change. Amidst this change, Nigerian women are now the greatest users of sex toys on the planet. What does this mean?
In this article, I will show you the most popular theories, going through the history of two of the worlds major religions, Buddhism and Christianity, as well as how scientists see it.
Placage in Colonial New Orleans were legal arrangements (illegal ones) marrying women of African descent with men of Europen descent. These unions were a way of survival for women, and an advantage for white men.
This article explores the relationship between egalitarianism, language, and cultural adaptation, as illustrated by the only known equal rights society, the Mbuti of central Africa.
Why does the ancient and "primitive" act of cannibalism continue in these modern times? What is the connection between human perception, eating the dead, and spirituality? This article explores this fascinating subject.
Where did the stereotypical image of the Witch's hat come from?
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north of the Himalayas. It is home to the indigenous Tibetan people, and to some other ethnic groups such as Monpas and Lhobas, and is inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 meters (16,000 ft). It is sometimes referred to as the roof of the world.
Specimens of preserved human bodies or "mummies" have been discovered throughout the centuries, some even from before the Egyptian Pharaoh times when the art of embalming originated. Many of these preserved bodies have survived decomposition for as many as 3000 years.
Philippine beliefs and superstition have grown in number throughout the various regions and provinces in the country. These beliefs have come from the different saying and superstitions of our ancestors that aim to prevent danger from happening or to make a person refrain from doing something in particular. These beliefs are part of our culture, for one derives their beliefs from the influences of what their customs, traditions and culture have dictated to explain certain phenomena or to put a s...
Nephilim is the word used to describe the giants spoken of in biblical times by Enoch as well as the giant David fought against (Goliath). It is generally believed that most of these Giants came about when the fallen angels had union with earthly woman.
Some ancient people practiced bizarre, unimaginable and unusual customs and traditions. HereÂ’s a list of absurd and disturbing facts about the Spartans, Caribs, Incas and Aztecs and other Ancient people.
I am the world's worst whistler, yet am happy to hear those who have mastered the skill. To some people whistling can be annoying, especially if out of tune! But, why do people whistle? Whistling means different things to different people. Here are few interesting whistling facts that you may not have known. Whether you believe them or not is up to you.
India is an agglomeration of more than 1000 different cultures, and a typical day in any part of India can be an interesting read for non Indians.
Allahu akbar has become a term that invokes fear among non-Muslims due to Islamic extremism and media sensationalism. Hearing a Muslim say this or other Arabic phrases should not make anyone afraid, and this Factoid will provide common terms and meanings.
Different reasons and facts that present as the best evidence for the existence of UFO's and aliens.